'Basics of Static Electricity' white paper from EXAIR
The "Basics of Static Electricity" white paper presents 20 comprehensive and full-colored pages on the causes of static electricity, how it develops, and solutions for combatting it in manufacturing processes. Static electricity is a product of non-conductive materials coming into contact and separating, or creating friction between them, leading to imbalanced ions. EXAIR Static Eliminators restore this balance and assist in maintaining proper process speeds, preventing product damage and injured employees. Learn more.
Next-gen adaptive resistance welding controller
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M12 connector simplifies sensor and actuator applications
binder USA has announced a new two-piece M12 circular connector that offers versatility with several special features, including a square flange housing for easy assembly and a multi-position, lockable A-coding that supports variable cable installation. The new connectors simplify making secure sensor and actuator connections in applications such as factory automation and robotics. Learn more.
Thin film resistor for consumer and industrial electronics
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Under-$100 Lidar named CES 2022 Innovation Awards Honoree
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Resolve EMI and EMC challenges with Ansys
EMA3D Cable solves complex EMI and EMC challenges related to high-intensity radiated fields, lightning strikes, radiated emissions and conducted susceptibility, and other issues. It is being used to build complete models of cars and planes, including every cable. Ansys HFSS is the world's foremost antenna design and modeling tool. Its comprehensive set of solvers allows engineers to address diverse electromagnetic problems ranging in detail and scale from passive integrated circuit components to extremely large-scale EM analyses, such as automotive radar scenes for advanced driver-assistance systems. Read this informative Ansys blog.
Upgraded mechanical pressure switch portfolio
NOSHOK's new mechanical pressure switch program has been engineered to address a wider range of applications and provide a significantly expanded selection of process and electrical connection options. Each of the four new NOSHOK switch series offers vacuum, low-pressure, and high-pressure options; is CE compliant to suppress RFI, EMI, and ESD; and is RoHS compliant. In addition, NOSHOK has improved its production efficiency and expanded its inventory to better accommodate orders and provide faster delivery. Learn more.
Highest-rated current inductors for automotive Power over Coax systems
TDK's ADL3225VM inductors are for use in automotive Power over Coax (PoC) systems. Measuring 3.2 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm, they provide a compact solution for designers looking to reduce vehicle weight as manufacturers add more sensors and cameras to accommodate expanding automotive and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) applications. The proprietary structural design and wire winding manufacturing process ensure high impedance over a broad bandpass of 1 MHz up to 1 GHz. The inductors are compliant with AEC-Q200 and achieve the highest-rated current in the industry for the 3225 size. Learn more.
As communica-tions providers race to deliver on the potential of 5G, research and design projects are already looking toward 6G and beyond. However, a major hurdle awaits the impending move up the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum: a lack of acceptable mmWave components that can offer a wide bandwidth. Micro Harmonics has an answer. Read the full article.
Antimicrobial switches disinfect themselves
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Expanded enclosure A/C inventory
Seifert Systems has completed their warehouse expansion, significantly increasing the types and quantity of enclosure air conditioners available. Air conditioners with popular cooling capacities within 1,000 to 21,000 BTU/hr are in stock and ready to ship. Among these are the Progressive, filterless SlimLine, and Compact Series of enclosure air conditioners as well as thermoelectric coolers. Seifert enclosure air conditioners come with a two-year warranty. SlimLine units are only 4.5 in. deep, and many Progressive units share the same size footprint for easier planning when needed for more than one application. See what Seifert Systems has to offer.
Reversible-flow fans: Directional flow and speed control in one unit
Orion Fans has launched a series of micro-controller-based, up to IP68-rated, reversible-flow fans. By utilizing PWM signals to control fan speed, the fans provide engineers an innovative solution to some of their most challenging cooling requirements: speed and airflow direction controlled by one fan without supplementing excess wires or circuitry. Reversible-flow fans are a specialty design that enables unique applications. You may be surprised at their versatility. Learn more.
Cool Tools: Leica RTC360 3D laser scanner -- LIDAR for big jobs
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Eaton developing suite of 48-V technologies to help vehicle manufacturers meet new global emission regulations
Most vehicles have traditionally operated with a 12-V system, but with tightening fuel economy regulations and new, advanced power-consuming components being added, increasing power needs are driving the move toward 48-V systems. Read the full article.
igus unveils new sensor for smart plastics predictive maintenance
igus has developed a sensor for its smart plastics software that calculates the remaining service life of energy chains, cables, linear guides, and plain bearings during operation. The i.cee:local sensor optimizes the life of the system, detects faults, allows them to be fixed at an early stage, and allows for maintenance to be planned in advance. This sensor can be integrated via the internet or without IoT connectivity via the local network, depending on customer requirements. Smart plastics sensors monitor abrasion, measure the pull/push force, and provide information about an imminent overload. Learn more.
100x today's fastest cell networks: Scientists report first data transmission through terahertz multiplexer
A research team led by a Brown University engineer has demonstrated the first data transmission through a terahertz multiplexer. [Mittleman lab/Brown University/Ducournau Lab/CNRS/University of Lille]
Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. An international research team has demonstrated for the first time a method for multiplexing data carried on terahertz waves, high-frequency radiation that may enable the next generation of ultra-high bandwidth wireless networks.
In the journal Nature Communications, the researchers report the transmission of two real-time video signals through a terahertz multiplexer at an aggregate data rate of 50 gigabits per second, approximately 100 times the optimal data rate of today's fastest cellular network.
"We showed that we can transmit separate data streams on terahertz waves at very high speeds and with very low error rates," said Daniel Mittleman, a professor in Brown's School of Engineering and the paper's corresponding author. "This is the first time anybody has characterized a terahertz multiplexing system using actual data, and our results show that our approach could be viable in future terahertz wireless networks."
Current voice and data networks use microwaves to carry signals wirelessly. But the demand for data transmission is quickly becoming more than microwave networks can handle. Terahertz waves have higher frequencies than microwaves and therefore a much larger capacity to carry data. However, scientists have only just begun experimenting with terahertz frequencies, and many of the basic components necessary for terahertz communication don't exist yet.
A system for multiplexing and demultiplexing (also known as mux/demux) is one of those basic components. It's the technology that allows one cable to carry multiple TV channels or hundreds of users to access a wireless Wi-Fi network.
The mux/demux approach Mittleman and his colleagues developed uses two metal plates placed parallel to each other to form a waveguide. One of the plates has a slit cut into it. When terahertz waves travel through the waveguide, some of the radiation leaks out of the slit. The angle at which radiation beams escape is dependent upon the frequency of the wave.
"We can put several waves at several different frequencies -- each of them carrying a data stream -- into the waveguide, and they won't interfere with each other because they're different frequencies; that's multiplexing," Mittleman said. "Each of those frequencies leaks out of the slit at a different angle, separating the data streams; that's demultiplexing."
Because of the nature of terahertz waves, signals in terahertz communications networks will propagate as directional beams, not omnidirectional broadcasts like in existing wireless systems. This directional relationship between propagation angle and frequency is the key to enabling mux/demux in terahertz systems. A user at a particular location (and therefore at a particular angle from the multiplexing system) will communicate on a particular frequency.
In 2015, Mittleman's lab first published a paper describing their waveguide concept. For that initial work, the team used a broadband terahertz light source to confirm that different frequencies did indeed emerge from the device at different angles.
While that was an effective proof of concept, Mittleman said, this latest work took the critical step of testing the device with real data.
Working with Guillaume Ducournau at Institut d'Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS/University of Lille, in France, the researchers encoded two high-definition television broadcasts onto terahertz waves of two different frequencies: 264.7 GHz and 322.5 GHz. They then beamed both frequencies together into the multiplexer system, with a television receiver set to detect the signals as they emerged from the device. When the researchers aligned their receiver to the angle from which 264.7 GHz waves were emitted, they saw the first channel. When they aligned with 322.5 GHz, they saw the second.
Further experiments showed that transmissions were error-free up to 10 gigabits per second, which is much faster than today's standard Wi-Fi speeds. Error rates increased somewhat when the speed was boosted to 50 gigabits per second (25 gigabits per channel), but were still well within the range that can be fixed using forward error correction, which is commonly used in today's communications networks.
In addition to demonstrating that the device worked, Mittleman says the research revealed some surprising details about transmitting data on terahertz waves. When a terahertz wave is modulated to encode data -- meaning turned on and off to make zeros and ones -- the main wave is accompanied by sideband frequencies that also must be detected by a receiver in order to transmit all the data. The research showed that the angle of the detector with respect to the sidebands is important to keeping the error rate down.
"If the angle is a little off, we might be detecting the full power of the signal, but we're receiving one sideband a little better than the other, which increases the error rate." Mittleman explained. "So it's important to have the angle right."
Fundamental details like that will be critical, Mittleman said, when it comes time to start designing the architecture for complete terahertz data systems. "It's something we didn't expect, and it shows how important it is to characterize these systems using data rather than just an unmodulated radiation source."
"We think that we have the highest frequency license currently issued by the FCC, and we hope it's a sign that the agency is starting to think seriously about terahertz communication," Mittleman said. "Companies are going to be reluctant to develop terahertz technologies until there's a serious effort by regulators to allocate frequency bands for specific uses, so this is a step in the right direction."
This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Army Research Office, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and France's Agence Nationale de la Recherche under the COM'TONIQ and TERALINKS research grants and in the framework of the CPER "Photonics for Society" developed within the Hauts-de-France region.